ImageXd is the successor for image and image3d (which already replaces transform2). The software can be used for various applications. It can processes images (2d), image stacks (3d), vector fields, tensor fields (symmatrix), surface networks (meshes) and unstructured data (fibres, networks). Only the computer is the limit for the size of the data sets (64 Bit ~ 2^64 Bytes). Most functions are also optimized for multi-core processors.

* Calculation of orientation tensors
* Analysis of tensor fields (FA, RA, Mean, …)
* For a possible visualization of your tensor data, I recommend the following paper: Leemans (2010) Visualization of Diffusion MRI Data
* Additional software tools: Slicer, OpenWalnut, MedInria, MRIcro, Trackvis, …

Major changes:
* namespace image -> scalar for image3d
* scalar.rgb & scalar.rgba -> vector.rgb & vector.rgba

Version 2.12.16

For a command documentation, start the program for the first time. imageXd.macro is created with a complete list of commands.

This program is owned by Heiko Stark. It can be used free of charge for non-commercial use. For the common citations in publications please use the following entry “ImageXd software (Heiko Stark, Jena, Germany, URL:

An installer for Windows and Linux can be found here: Software

imagexd 64bit (Windows & Wine/Darwine)
imagexd 32bit (Windows, ReactOS & Wine/Darwine)
imagexd 32bit (Windows CE)
imagexd arm (Windows CE)

imagexd 64bit (MacOS X & Darling)
imagexd 32bit (MacOS X & Darling)

imagexd 64bit (Linux)
imagexd 32bit (Linux)

imagexd 64bit (FreeBSD)
imagexd 32bit (FreeBSD)

imagexd 64bit (Solaris)
imagexd 32bit (Solaris)

Note: Intel 32bit runs also on 64bit systems, but only with 4GB memory!
Note: Imagemagick works only for version 4-6. Please use the appropriate library.

// This is a comment for the imagexd macro - you can use this macro like a programing language
// For more infos, please see | imagexd
// Copyright (c) 2017 by Heiko Stark

// scalar.use default
scalar.load big.nii
new := scalar.substack <10,10,10> <20,20,20>
scalar.use new small.nii.gz

// This is a comment for the image3d macro - you can use this macro like a programing language
// For more infos, please see | imagexd
// Copyright (c) 2017 by Heiko Stark

io.files *.nii
io.files *.nii.gz
io.files *.hdr
for io.files.length // runs for every file from list io.files
     scalar.load io.files.getfile // load a file from list io.files
     newfile := io.files.getname . txt io.files.getfile newfile
     newfile := io.files.getname -h. ppm 
     scalar.histogram newfile
     //scalar.analysis newfile
     newfile := io.files.getname -o. ppm
     scalar.gradient newfile
     new // clean memory // go to next file from list io.files

see also image and image3d

Used for the ‘KIP.FasciaRG‘ project.

And used for these investigations:

Nyakatura JA, Baumgarten R, Baum D, Stark H, Youlatos D (2019) Muscle internal structure revealed by contrast-enhanced µCT and fibre recognition: The hindlimb extensors of an arboreal and a fossorial squirrel. Mammalian Biology 99: 71-80. DOI:10.1016/j.mambio.2019.10.007 / ISSN:1616-5047

Dickinson E, Stark H, Kupczik K. (2018). Non-destructive determination of muscle architectural variables through the use of DiceCT. The Anatomical Record 301 (2): 363–377. DOI:10.1002/ar.23716 / ISSN:1932-8494

+ 1 Reference from image3d

+ 20 References from transform2.

If you want to send me a bug report or have some suggestions about what future versions of ‘image3d’ should support you can contact me either by email (bugs[@]starkrats[dot]de).